The Fragmentation Game is essentially a strategic geopolitical dynamic of ensuring more robust access to energy, technology and defence among large competing nation states. Electrification and the green transformation are a direct strategy towards independence in energy delivery, which, after the war in Ukraine, is evidently a key strategic variable for any nation state. The green transformation will be positive for metals such as lithium and copper, and it will be positive for growth in electric utilities, everything related to solar power, and energy storage systems. Opportunities in these areas will be big for equity investors, and everyone is waiting for the EU to roll out their own version of the US Inflation Reduction Act.
Semiconductors play a key role in our modern economy and without a stable supply chain of semiconductors, military equipment, cars, advanced machinery equipment, computers and data centres are impossible. The US CHIPS Act has changed the semiconductors industry and a large amount of investments are now being deployed in both the US and Europe. Our semiconductor theme basket is our best-performing theme basket this year, reflecting the strong growth outlook helped by this big new US industrial policy shift. Our defence basket is another theme that is performing well this year, reflecting the fact that the war in Ukraine could take years to resolve, and Europe will have to do more on its own in terms of defence. We remain overweight in both themes.
The Fragmentation Game will also mean reshoring, with countries such as India, Vietnam and Indonesia winning relative to other emerging market countries. Logistics companies will continue to thrive and maybe even more in the Fragmentation Game, because logistics will become more complex, thus yielding higher margins. It will also mean stronger fiscal policies to guide the transition, and the consequences will most likely be higher costs for companies, and thus lower margins. Fragmentation of the global economy will likely put inflation at a higher structural level, and the cost of capital will likely go up, squeezing low quality and leveraged companies.
Fighting inflation puts banks under pressure
Could the Fed hike the policy rate by 450 basis points without breaking anything? That was the big question everyone was asking, and financial conditions suggested that was the case. But then SVB Financial ran into trouble, losing deposits to a degree that forced it offload $21bn in available-for-sale bonds, triggering a loss of $1.8bn. The subsequent equity offering to plug the hole and avoid offloading its almost $100bn held-to-maturity bond portfolio at steep losses spooked the market. The last depositors out the door could lose a large share of their uninsured deposits. The US government stepped in with a full guarantee of all uninsured assets.
However, the damage had already been done. In a few trading days there was a rush to convert deposits to short-term bonds, causing the US 2-year yield to plunge 109 basis points over just three trading days. The move reverberated through all markets, upending trend-following hedge funds and causing two consecutive trading sessions with a 0.1% tail-risk loss for CTA funds, including the biggest single-day loss for this type of hedge fund.
The banking system was put under pressure, with several smaller banks in the US scrambling for deposits, pushing the Fed’s discount window balance to $156bn in a single week and to the highest level since the Great Financial Crisis. Big unrealised losses in held-to-maturity bonds suddenly looked fragile and dangerous, in case a bank’s deposits were not stable. A big deposit game has been initiated. The big blow to confidence in banks ended up with the Swiss government’s shotgun marriage of UBS and the troubled Credit Suisse. To make things worse, the Swiss rescue design of Credit Suisse included money on the table for shareholders and a complete wipe-out of the additional tier 1 (AT1) capital holders, who are above shareholders in the capital structure.