Q3 Outlook: The global fiscal panic
Video length: 1 minute
Quarterly Outlook

Q3 Outlook: The global fiscal panic

Steen Jakobsen
Chief Economist & CIO

Summary:  Central banks’ response to the looming economic slowdown and trade war has been panic cutting of interest rates and signalling of new extremes of easing, while politicians are warming to the idea of Modern Monetary Theory.

For more information about our Quarterly Outlook, click here.

Central banks’ response to the looming economic slowdown and trade war has been panic cutting of interest rates and signalling of new extremes of easing, while politicians are warming to the idea of Modern Monetary Theory. Our model indicates that the low point in the economic cycles lies in the third quarter for China, and in the first to second quarter for the US, UK and Europe. Furthermore, we could be headed for a massive repeat of the 1970s global supply shock.

Looking ahead to the rest of 2019, central banks are concerned about inflation, the voters about the environment and inequality, and business about the global supply disruption caused by the trade war, which some might call a war for technological supremacy. 

The central banks’ policy response has been the predictable panic cutting of interest rates and guiding policy to new extremes of easing, while politicians are warming to the idea of Modern Monetary Theory as an intellectual backdrop to the fiscal expansion they will initiate as global growth falters further. Meanwhile, companies globally are scrambling to make sense of the trade war, Brexit and the disintermediation of a multilateral system in a world where environmental costs are about to explode, driven by consumer concerns and a wave of Green politicians getting into the political driving seats.

What does that mean for us investors?

We, Saxo’s strategy team, have learned through trial and error that the best way to forecast involves anticipating policy responses and to combine them with an analysis of the credit impulse.

The credit impulse – the growth or contraction of credit supply into the economy – explains economic activity nine months forward with an “r2” of .60; or, in layman’s terms, 60% of the economic activity nine months in the future is given already now. The credit impulses globally continue to indicate that the economic low point is ahead of us, not behind us. Our model indicates that it lies in the third quarter for China, and in the first to second quarter for the US, UK and Europe.

The lower policy rates will not help, as we have pointed out several times using our Four Horsemen theme. The price of money is only a derivative of the quantity of money. And currently, the change in the quantity of money, explained via the credit impulse, remains sluggish, which means that the current central bank effort to change the price of money will only create a short-term sugar high. The analogy we use is that the size of the credit cake is unchanged to smaller, while a piece of cake will now get a bit cheaper. This, of course, leaves only a marginal transmission to the real economy.

And once the central banks burn through the last bits of available policy headroom, policymakers will look for further policy initiatives as the rate cutting and restarting of quantitative easing will not be enough. We believe the next logical step will be a massive increase in fiscal spending as national budget talks get under way in October-November. This fiscal expansion will be aimed at infrastructure, environment and inequality.

Some countries, especially Germany, the US and Latin America, are in desperate need of infrastructure improvement. The McKinsey Global Institute’s Bridging Global Infrastructure Gaps report says that the world needs to spend 3.8% of GDP annually, or an average of $3.3 trillion a year. Emerging markets (the high-growth countries) account for 60% of that need.  Right now, they estimate we are 11% short of that, or $350 billion per year. This is not including additional investment required to meet the  UN Sustainable Development Goals.

A global push to expand fiscal spending and run larger budget deficits, while global interest rates are set at zero or below, while the globalisation benefit on inflation is structurally disappearing due to trade tensions and general globalisation fatigue, sets up a scenario reminiscent of the 1970s: Big government, trade troubles (back then the US vs. Japan), supply constraints (the Opec crisis), changing market models (the shift away from the gold standard), inflation, the opening of the US-China relationship, and — who knows? — maybe even bad hair. This may seem an outrageous prediction, but the structural forces keeping inflation low have disappeared.Austere fiscal policy (excluding the US) globally has had a negative impact on inflation expectations; the rock-bottom interest-rate policy is per definition anti-inflationary as it reduces the velocity of money, and globalisation was also deflationary. 

Remember globalisation worked to reduce prices as China and emerging-market countries started producing goods with their cheaper labour forces. This made all products cheaper, which benefitted consumers, and that in turn reduced saving, which increased deficits, which reduced growth and that way circled back to even lower rates and inflation.

Today globalisation has reached its maximum, even without the trade spat. China produces everything, so the “making things cheaper” process has run out of room. Add to that the potential trade war and massive focus on the environmental impact of all facets of consumption, from plastics to packaging, airline and sea transport pollution, and, with  central banks wrongly focused on excessively low inflation, you get a perfect storm brewing that will turn the tide back toward inflationary outcomes. From anti-globalisation, higher unit cost of production due to environmental considerations, a fiscal push into infrastructure and shoring up injured global supply chains — all that creates a massive repeat of the 1970s global supply shock.

The shock this time will come sometime after the global fiscal expansion set to arrive in the third and fourth quarter. In this situation, the markets that stand to benefit the most will be commodities and real resources, infrastructure plays, wages and gold.

By the summer of 2020 – one year from now – we will have seen the end of any belief in monetary policy moving the needle, and will be witnessing extravagant spending driving inflation to levels beyond anyone’s expectations, just a couple of quarters after inflation, once again, has been pronounced dead.


The Saxo Group entities each provide execution-only service and access to Analysis permitting a person to view and/or use content available on or via the website is not intended to and does not change or expand on this. Such access and use are at all times subject to (i) The Terms of Use; (ii) Full Disclaimer; (iii) The Risk Warning; (iv) the Rules of Engagement and (v) Notices applying to Saxo News & Research and/or its content in addition (where relevant) to the terms governing the use of hyperlinks on the website of a member of the Saxo Group by which access to Saxo News & Research is gained. Such content is therefore provided as no more than information. In particular no advice is intended to be provided or to be relied on as provided nor endorsed by any Saxo Group entity; nor is it to be construed as solicitation or an incentive provided to subscribe for or sell or purchase any financial instrument. All trading or investments you make must be pursuant to your own unprompted and informed self-directed decision. As such no Saxo Group entity will have or be liable for any losses that you may sustain as a result of any investment decision made in reliance on information which is available on Saxo News & Research or as a result of the use of the Saxo News & Research. Orders given and trades effected are deemed intended to be given or effected for the account of the customer with the Saxo Group entity operating in the jurisdiction in which the customer resides and/or with whom the customer opened and maintains his/her trading account. Saxo News & Research does not contain (and should not be construed as containing) financial, investment, tax or trading advice or advice of any sort offered, recommended or endorsed by Saxo Group and should not be construed as a record of our trading prices, or as an offer, incentive or solicitation for the subscription, sale or purchase in any financial instrument. To the extent that any content is construed as investment research, you must note and accept that the content was not intended to and has not been prepared in accordance with legal requirements designed to promote the independence of investment research and as such, would be considered as a marketing communication under relevant laws.

Please read our disclaimers:
- Notification on Non-Independent Investment Research (https://www.home.saxo/legal/niird/notification)
- Full disclaimer (https://www.home.saxo/en-sg/legal/disclaimer/saxo-disclaimer)

None of the information contained here constitutes an offer to purchase or sell a financial instrument, or to make any investments. Saxo Markets does not take into account your personal investment objectives or financial situation and makes no representation and assumes no liability as to the accuracy or completeness of the information nor for any loss arising from any investment made in reliance of this presentation. Any opinions made are subject to change and may be personal to the author. These may not necessarily reflect the opinion of Saxo Capital Markets or its affiliates.

Saxo Markets
88 Market Street
CapitaSpring #31-01
Singapore 048948

Contact Saxo

Select region


Saxo Capital Markets Pte Ltd ('Saxo Markets') is a company authorised and regulated by the Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS) [Co. Reg. No.: 200601141M ] and is a wholly owned subsidiary of Saxo Bank A/S, headquartered in Denmark. Please refer to our General Business Terms & Risk Warning to consider whether acquiring or continuing to hold financial products is suitable for you, prior to opening an account and investing in a financial product.

Trading in financial instruments carries various risks, and is not suitable for all investors. Please seek expert advice, and always ensure that you fully understand these risks before trading. Trading in leveraged products such as Margin FX products may result in your losses exceeding your initial deposits. Saxo Markets does not provide financial advice, any information available on this website is ‘general’ in nature and for informational purposes only. Saxo Markets does not take into account an individual’s needs, objectives or financial situation.

The Saxo trading platform has received numerous awards and recognition. For details of these awards and information on awards visit www.home.saxo/en-sg/about-us/awards.

The information or the products and services referred to on this website may be accessed worldwide, however is only intended for distribution to and use by recipients located in countries where such use does not constitute a violation of applicable legislation or regulations. Products and Services offered on this website are not intended for residents of the United States, Malaysia and Japan. Please click here to view our full disclaimer.

This advertisement has not been reviewed by the Monetary Authority of Singapore.