Whether equities are expensive or not depends on how you look at it Whether equities are expensive or not depends on how you look at it Whether equities are expensive or not depends on how you look at it

Whether equities are expensive or not depends on how you look at it

Equities 10 minutes to read
Peter Garnry

Head of Saxo Strats

Summary:  US equities look expensive when measured against itself but when the equity valuation is mapped to future returns the current levels could still provide investors with a positive real return over the next 10 years. If the question of equity valuation is broaden to that of against government bonds, also called equity risk premium, then US equities look historically cheap. In today's equity note we also explain why cash flows matter more than earnings and why investors should focus on free cash flow yields instead of P/E ratios.

During internal discussion about equity valuations and whether the market is expensive or not we thought it was about time we made a guide to equity valuations and what really matters when looking at companies.

The rebound in US equities have pushed our valuation model back to being 1 standard deviation expensive using seven different valuation metrics since 1995. Measured against itself the equity market looks increasingly expensive. Using only P/E in which we have data going back to 1954 the market is 1.1 standard deviations expensive or 30% above the average (and this is before the expected decline in EPS in the second half).

But a certain valuation level measured against itself has no meaning or value unless it is tied to future returns. Based on 10-year realized US equity returns less inflation (also called real return – an increase in purchasing power or real wealth) we can map our valuation metric to the future and there the picture looks a bit different. There is an estimated 60% probability that the 10-year annualized real return will be positive. This means that the risk-reward ratio is not certain that you will increase your real wealth in equities over the next 10 years. But important point here is that equities measured against itself looks expensive and most would be inclined to reduce equity exposure or even sell everything but history suggest that even at current levels the investor can get a positive return adjusted for inflation.

One of the biggest drawbacks of making absolute equity valuation comparisons are that the underlying system of companies constantly changes (technologies, accounting rules etc.). This means that we are not exactly comparing the same thing. Companies were easy to compare before the 1960s as most of them were an industrial type company with large capital expenditures and a local revenue stream. The accounting rules were simple, and everyone agree to value equities based on dividends. Since the 1960s the network of companies has changed dramatically.

The first wave was larger national companies and increasingly offering consumer goods relying on marketing and brands. This grew the importance of intangible assets on the balance sheet something that had previously one been an artifact of acquisitions of companies above book value. Later companies became more international and cross-border accounting rules had to be established. Then came the IT companies which had little capital expenditures, large profit margins and no real production. Making comparisons of equity valuation since 1890 which many commentators do including the famous Shiller P/E also called CAPE ratio (cyclically adjusted price-to-earnings ratio).

In the period before the 1960s the prevailing view among investors was that stocks should be bought for its income, in other words, investors were looking for stable dividends. Growth was viewed as risky and hazy. During the growth decade of the 1960s investment banks began making IPOs based on growth narratives with the big boom starting among retailers that were expanding to become national instead of regional. Over time equities have become a growth component for investors in their portfolios and not an income component. This has created a drift upward in P/E ratios (regime change if you will) which is the key reason why we do not go back further than 1990s when do historical comparisons of equity valuations.

We have established the rationale for tying absolute equity valuation with itself to future returns, but one could argue equities do not live in isolation. They interact in a complex system with other assets and investors constantly re-evaluate these assets and how to mix them to fulfill their objectives. The typically alternative to equities are government bonds which are viewed as the risk-free interest-bearing asset offered by the government. The historical outperformance of equities vs bonds is called the equity risk premium. That is the premium the investor earns for assuming risk beyond the risk-free asset.

Aswath Damodaran is a finance professor at NYC and is one the leading equity valuation experts and he has long-term data on the US equity risk premium. As the chart below shows the US equity risk premium today is quite attractive in a historical context driven by the very low yields offered on US government bonds. There are many ways to estimate the equity risk premium as one can read in Damodaran’s paper Equity Risk Premiums (ERP): Determinants, Estimation and Implications – The 2020 Edition. The classical way was to use the dividend yield and earnings yield approach. However, the couple of decades less than half of earnings are now paid out as dividends meaning companies in aggregate terms are expanding their cash balances. These funds can be used to buy back the companies’ own shares which is exactly what has happened over time.

To better estimate the risk premium Damodaran has moved to FCFE model (free cash flow to equity) which captures the overall cash flows available to shareholders. Free cash flow to equity is essentially the net income less the accumulation of fixed assets (capital expenditures minus depreciation) minus changes in non-cash working capital plus the net change in debt. This is the cash flow that is available after all capital sources needed to run the business (fixed assets such as factories, suppliers, and debt holders) have been paid. This cash flow can be returned to shareholders via two channels: dividends or buybacks of own shares with the latter being the most tax-efficient solution for a multinational company.

Therefore, free cash flow is so important and the reason we often mention it. Most investors learn about P/E ratios, but they are insufficient as they cannot be compared if the capital structure is different or the business model is different. Earnings are also easier to manipulate than cash flows. The chart below shows the results from a machine learning model on various factors and how they explain outperformance for a given stock. The Shapley values show that a high value (red colour) of free cash flow yield pushes the model towards a positive output (predicting outperformance against the overall equity market). The model also shows that the low debt leverage (net-debt to EBITDA) has a positive impact on outperformance.

Source: CrowdCent

In other words, companies with a positive industry outlook, high free cash flow yield and low debt leverage have better risk-reward ratios for the investor. Next time you look at a company think in terms of free cash flows and compare it against the enterprise value of the company and not the market value. The enterprise value is the market value plus net debt; this is the takeover value for another company that wants to buy the company. The free cash flow to enterprise value is the real yardstick for valuation and the one private equity investors are also looking intensely at when deciding on their investments. The free cash flow yield combined with the revenue outlook was also the reason why Facebook was on our list last week of reasonable valued technology companies. If the investor just looked at the P/E ratio of 28x then it would have scared most people off but cash flows and earnings are not the same due to accounting rules and because of they are recognized over time.


The Saxo Group entities each provide execution-only service, and access to analysis permitting a person to view and/or use content available on or via the website is not intended to and does not change or expand on this. Such access and use are at all times subject to (i) The Terms of Use; (ii) Full Disclaimer; (iii) The Risk Warning; (iv) the Inspiration Disclaimer and (v) Notices applying to Trade Inspiration, Saxo News & Research and/or its content in addition (where relevant) to the terms governing the use of hyperlinks on the website of a member of the Saxo Group by which access to Saxo News & Research is gained. Such content is therefore provided as no more than information. In particular, no advice is intended to be provided or to be relied on as provided nor endorsed by any Saxo Group entity; nor is it to be construed as solicitation or an incentive provided to subscribe for or sell or purchase any financial instrument. All trading or investments you make must be pursuant to your own unprompted and informed self-directed decision. As such no Saxo Group entity will have or be liable for any losses that you may sustain as a result of any investment decision made in reliance on information which is available on Saxo News & Research or as a result of the use of the Saxo News & Research. Orders given and trades effected are deemed intended to be given or effected for the account of the customer with the Saxo Group entity operating in the jurisdiction in which the customer resides and/or with whom the customer opened and maintains his/her trading account. Saxo News & Research does not contain (and should not be construed as containing) financial, investment, tax or trading advice or advice of any sort offered, recommended or endorsed by Saxo Group and should not be construed as a record of our trading prices, or as an offer, incentive or solicitation for the subscription, sale or purchase in any financial instrument. To the extent that any content is construed as investment research, you must note and accept that the content was not intended to and has not been prepared in accordance with legal requirements designed to promote the independence of investment research and as such, would be considered as a marketing communication under relevant laws.

Please read our disclaimers:
Notification on Non-Independent Investment Research (https://www.home.saxo/legal/niird/notification)
Full disclaimer (https://www.home.saxo/en-sg/legal/disclaimer/saxo-disclaimer)

None of the information contained here constitutes an offer to purchase or sell a financial instrument, or to make any investments. Saxo Markets does not take into account your personal investment objectives or financial situation and makes no representation and assumes no liability as to the accuracy or completeness of the information nor for any loss arising from any investment made in reliance of this presentation. Any opinions made are subject to change and may be personal to the author. These may not necessarily reflect the opinion of Saxo Markets or its affiliates.

Saxo Markets
88 Market Street
CapitaSpring #31-01
Singapore 048948

Contact Saxo

Select region


Saxo Capital Markets Pte Ltd ('Saxo Markets') is a company authorised and regulated by the Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS) [Co. Reg. No.: 200601141M ] and is a wholly owned subsidiary of Saxo Bank A/S, headquartered in Denmark. Please refer to our General Business Terms & Risk Warning to consider whether acquiring or continuing to hold financial products is suitable for you, prior to opening an account and investing in a financial product.

Trading in financial instruments carries various risks, and is not suitable for all investors. Please seek expert advice, and always ensure that you fully understand these risks before trading. Trading in leveraged products such as Margin FX products may result in your losses exceeding your initial deposits. Saxo Markets does not provide financial advice, any information available on this website is ‘general’ in nature and for informational purposes only. Saxo Markets does not take into account an individual’s needs, objectives or financial situation.

The Saxo trading platform has received numerous awards and recognition. For details of these awards and information on awards visit www.home.saxo/en-sg/about-us/awards.

The information or the products and services referred to on this website may be accessed worldwide, however is only intended for distribution to and use by recipients located in countries where such use does not constitute a violation of applicable legislation or regulations. Products and Services offered on this website are not intended for residents of the United States, Malaysia and Japan. Please click here to view our full disclaimer.

This advertisement has not been reviewed by the Monetary Authority of Singapore.

Apple and the Apple logo are trademarks of Apple Inc, registered in the US and other countries and regions. App Store is a service mark of Apple Inc. Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google LLC.