Manage your trading risk Manage your trading risk Manage your trading risk

Manage your trading risk

Raymond Cheung

Global Sales Trader

Algorithmic trading (i.e. Algo Trading) is one of the many techniques widely used by institutional investors. It is popular on the professional level because the program-driven logic can execute orders and generate profits at a speed and frequency that is beyond human’s physical limit. At Saxo, we enable all our clients to trade like a sophisticated professional but with easy to understand interface. We will use the following weeks to go over different common algo strategies one by one, with an aim to share our knowledge with common users.

Volume Weighted Average Price - VWAP

VWAP works an order over a user-specific time interval, attempting to match or beat the Volume-Weighted Average Price (VWAP) for that time interval. The order is executed proportionally with the expected market based on historical volume distribution. Since the VWAP is executed according to the expected market volume the strategy should not be used on days where the actual market volume is deviating significantly from the normal historic market volume.

Parameters to consider

Limit Price (Optional):
Strategy can be used both at market level or with a specified limit price

Start / End Time (Optional):
If not specified, start and end times are by default set to market open and market close, respectively. Start and end times are defined in local exchange time.

Max Participation Rate (Recommended):
Ability to place constraint on the maximum percentage of trade volume in which the order should participate. This parameter can protect the user from overly exposed in the market when order size is large compared to market level.

In Open / In Close Auction (Optional):
The user can decide whether to participate in opening and/or closing auctions. If not specified these are by default set to include auctions.

I Would Price (Optional):
Attempts to complete or trade up to the price specified. Within this price the order can be up to 100% of trade volume.

User should also be aware of the prevailing market condition and exercise necessary caution when the market deviates from historical distributions. The strategy relies on historical volume profile of the underlying asset to determine the pacing and aggressiveness on filling the working order. Should the underlying asset come across market moving news release (e.g. unexpected company news driving demand of shares, etc), trading of the underlying asset may display uncommon pattern which could discount the relevance of historical volume distribution, hence hindering the algorithm to achieve target benchmark on the market. It is advisable for clients to tighten the working timeframe or impose price limit under these exceptional circumstances.


The Saxo Group entities each provide execution-only service and access to Analysis permitting a person to view and/or use content available on or via the website is not intended to and does not change or expand on this. Such access and use are at all times subject to (i) The Terms of Use; (ii) Full Disclaimer; (iii) The Risk Warning; (iv) the Rules of Engagement and (v) Notices applying to Saxo News & Research and/or its content in addition (where relevant) to the terms governing the use of hyperlinks on the website of a member of the Saxo Group by which access to Saxo News & Research is gained. Such content is therefore provided as no more than information. In particular no advice is intended to be provided or to be relied on as provided nor endorsed by any Saxo Group entity; nor is it to be construed as solicitation or an incentive provided to subscribe for or sell or purchase any financial instrument. All trading or investments you make must be pursuant to your own unprompted and informed self-directed decision. As such no Saxo Group entity will have or be liable for any losses that you may sustain as a result of any investment decision made in reliance on information which is available on Saxo News & Research or as a result of the use of the Saxo News & Research. Orders given and trades effected are deemed intended to be given or effected for the account of the customer with the Saxo Group entity operating in the jurisdiction in which the customer resides and/or with whom the customer opened and maintains his/her trading account. Saxo News & Research does not contain (and should not be construed as containing) financial, investment, tax or trading advice or advice of any sort offered, recommended or endorsed by Saxo Group and should not be construed as a record of our trading prices, or as an offer, incentive or solicitation for the subscription, sale or purchase in any financial instrument. To the extent that any content is construed as investment research, you must note and accept that the content was not intended to and has not been prepared in accordance with legal requirements designed to promote the independence of investment research and as such, would be considered as a marketing communication under relevant laws.

Please read our disclaimers:
- Notification on Non-Independent Investment Research (
- Full disclaimer (

None of the information contained here constitutes an offer to purchase or sell a financial instrument, or to make any investments. Saxo does not take into account your personal investment objectives or financial situation and makes no representation and assumes no liability as to the accuracy or completeness of the information nor for any loss arising from any investment made in reliance of this presentation. Any opinions made are subject to change and may be personal to the author. These may not necessarily reflect the opinion of Saxo or its affiliates.

Saxo Capital Markets HK Limited
19th Floor
Shanghai Commercial Bank Tower
12 Queen’s Road Central
Hong Kong

Contact Saxo

Select region

Hong Kong S.A.R
Hong Kong S.A.R

Saxo Capital Markets HK Limited (“Saxo”) is a company authorised and regulated by the Securities and Futures Commission of Hong Kong. Saxo holds a Type 1 Regulated Activity (Dealing in Securities); Type 2 Regulated Activity (Dealing in Futures Contract); Type 3 Regulated Activity (Leveraged Foreign Exchange Trading); Type 4 Regulated Activity (Advising on Securities) and Type 9 Regulated Activity (Asset Management) licenses (CE No. AVD061). Registered address: 19th Floor, Shanghai Commercial Bank Tower, 12 Queen’s Road Central, Hong Kong.

Trading in financial instruments carries various risks, and is not suitable for all investors. Please seek expert advice, and always ensure that you fully understand these risks before trading. Trading in leveraged products may result in your losses exceeding your initial deposits. Saxo does not provide financial advice, any information available on this website is ‘general’ in nature and for informational purposes only. Saxo does not take into account an individual’s needs, objectives or financial situation. Please click here to view the relevant risk disclosure statements.

The Saxo trading platform has received numerous awards and recognition. For details of these awards and information on awards visit

The information or the products and services referred to on this site may be accessed worldwide, however is only intended for distribution to and use by recipients located in countries where such use does not constitute a violation of applicable legislation or regulations. Products and services offered on this website are not directed at, or intended for distribution to or use by, any person or entity residing in the United States and Japan. Please click here to view our full disclaimer.

Apple, iPad and iPhone are trademarks of Apple Inc., registered in the US and other countries. AppStore is a service mark of Apple Inc. Android is a trademark of Google Inc.