Details Cookies
Hong Kong S.A.R
Cookie policy

This website uses cookies to offer you a better browsing experience by enabling, optimising and analysing site operations, as well as to provide personalised ad content and allow you to connect to social media. By choosing “Accept all” you consent to the use of cookies and the related processing of personal data. Select “Manage consent” to manage your consent preferences. You can change your preferences or retract your consent at any time via the cookie policy page. Please view our cookie policy here and our privacy policy here

ECB : A clear roadmap for the summer holiday, more uncertainty from September onwards ECB : A clear roadmap for the summer holiday, more uncertainty from September onwards ECB : A clear roadmap for the summer holiday, more uncertainty from September onwards

ECB : A clear roadmap for the summer holiday, more uncertainty from September onwards

Christopher Dembik

Head of Macro Analysis

Summary:  The European Central Bank (ECB) confirmed they will hike interest rates at the July meeting by 25 basis points. This is a done-deal. Uncertainty remains regarding the scope of the hiking cycle after the summer. This will depend mostly from the evolution of the HICP and inflation expectations. The eurozone is likely to exit the era of negative rates (this was economic nonsense) by the end of Q3 this year. We think the hiking cycle could be shorter with fewer hikes than the money market expects, especially if growth continues to slowdown in the second part of the year. The risk of recession is low this year. But the eurozone is undoubtedly facing economic stagnation.

What was announced

« It’s not just a step. It’s a journey » - ECB President Christine Lagarde

We are a bit puzzled by today’s ECB meeting. The ECB clearly confirmed they will hike rates by 25 basis points at the July meeting. This is the first time in memory that a G10 central bank explicitly tells us the amount they intend to hike at the next meeting. Fed President Jerome Powell hinted at a 50 basis points interest hike in June, for instance. But it was not presented as a done-deal. He kept some optionality. This is surprising the ECB decided to tie their hands, for no real gain. The ECB is more uncertain regarding the September meeting. Lagarde said they could move by 50 basis points, depending on the inflation backdrop. Beyond September, the ECB appears committed to a gradual rate path – a less hawkish outlook taking into consideration the risk of lower growth (especially if the cost of living continues to rise, thus pushing consumption down. Real incomes are expected to drop in most eurozone countries this year, according to the OECD, sometimes quite sharply, like in Greece with a drop of 7 %). We don’t comment much on the new ECB staff forecasts. The inflation forecasts for this year are already outdated. Forecasts for 2023 and 2024 will likely be revised upward for inflation and downward for GDP growth by year-end. This is certainly the right moment to be humble and acknowledge that inflation is so sticky that we are unable to forecast it even for the next three months.

What is missing

The ECB is here to close spreads – see below chart

The ECB wrongly believed that by going with the safe option of a 25 basis points interest hike in July, the Italian bond market would give them a break. It hasn’t happened that way, unfortunately. Immediately after the press conference, the core/periphery spread widened significantly. Italy’s 10-year government yield was 23 basis points higher. The gap between the German and the Italian 10-year government bond yields widened further (220 basis points). We are back in the danger zone. But this is no time to panic yet. We are still far from levels which would trigger a market intervention. However, we believe that the ECB will have no other choice but to provide news about an anti-fragmentation facility at the July meeting. No doing so would push spreads higher at the worst time ever, when volumes are getting dangerously lower. This anti-fragmentation facility is a must-have for the ECB in order to speed up the tightening process if needed (that’s why the idea is supported by hawks) and to avoid a repeat of the 2012 sovereign debt crisis. However, this won’t be easy. Designing such a weapon is complex. All the pre-existing solutions (Securities Market Programme and Outright Monetary Transactions) come with major political and technical drawbacks. We think the easiest option would be to implement some kind of OMT 2.0 with soft conditionality. But further discussions are needed. This would ideally come on top of the €200bn of firepower coming from bringing forward PEPP reinvestments by one year (referring to the Pandemic Emergency Purchase Programme launched at the start of the outbreak in March 2020). Though this amount is significant, this is only a first line of defense. It would do too little to avoid financial fragmentation within the eurozone if this happens. In many regards, the design and the implementation of an anti-fragmentation facility is much more important for the future of the eurozone than the short-term pace of interest rates.

What’s next

Inflation expectations will be the key driver from September onwards

·       The first estimate of the June eurozone HICP will be on 1 July. In May, it reached a new high of 3.8 % year-over-year (with core goods at 4.2 % and services at 3.5 %). This is uncomfortably high. A new jump would increase pressure in favor of a 50 basis points move in September.

·       From September onwards, expect that market-based and survey-based inflation expectations (SPF) will be the main drivers of policy normalisation. At today’s conference, Lagarde mentioned « initial signs » of inflation expectations getting de-anchored. This draws a lot of market expectations. But the central bank’s hawkishness might vanish fast if GDP growth continues to slow down. The ECB will navigate in a very complicated economic environment from Q3 onwards – lower investment, gloomy consumption and inflation well-above the target for longer. Expect tough discussions between hawks and doves within the Governing council and a more uncertain pace of monetary policy normalisation.

·       Expect the eurozone to exit negative rates by the end of Q3 this year. The era of negative rates was a costly anomaly for the financial sector. This is positive news. We are getting back to normal. But we think the market is probably over-estimating the pace of monetary policy tightening in the medium-term in the eurozone. We think that lower growth could push the ECB to slow the hiking cycle sooner than expected. 


The Saxo Bank Group entities each provide execution-only service and access to Analysis permitting a person to view and/or use content available on or via the website is not intended to and does not change or expand on this. Such access and use are at all times subject to (i) The Terms of Use; (ii) Full Disclaimer; (iii) The Risk Warning; (iv) the Rules of Engagement and (v) Notices applying to Saxo News & Research and/or its content in addition (where relevant) to the terms governing the use of hyperlinks on the website of a member of the Saxo Bank Group by which access to Saxo News & Research is gained. Such content is therefore provided as no more than information. In particular no advice is intended to be provided or to be relied on as provided nor endorsed by any Saxo Bank Group entity; nor is it to be construed as solicitation or an incentive provided to subscribe for or sell or purchase any financial instrument. All trading or investments you make must be pursuant to your own unprompted and informed self-directed decision. As such no Saxo Bank Group entity will have or be liable for any losses that you may sustain as a result of any investment decision made in reliance on information which is available on Saxo News & Research or as a result of the use of the Saxo News & Research. Orders given and trades effected are deemed intended to be given or effected for the account of the customer with the Saxo Bank Group entity operating in the jurisdiction in which the customer resides and/or with whom the customer opened and maintains his/her trading account. Saxo News & Research does not contain (and should not be construed as containing) financial, investment, tax or trading advice or advice of any sort offered, recommended or endorsed by Saxo Bank Group and should not be construed as a record of our trading prices, or as an offer, incentive or solicitation for the subscription, sale or purchase in any financial instrument. To the extent that any content is construed as investment research, you must note and accept that the content was not intended to and has not been prepared in accordance with legal requirements designed to promote the independence of investment research and as such, would be considered as a marketing communication under relevant laws.

Please read our disclaimers:
- Notification on Non-Independent Investment Research (
- Full disclaimer (

Saxo Capital Markets HK Limited
19th Floor
Shanghai Commercial Bank Tower
12 Queen’s Road Central
Hong Kong

Contact Saxo

Select region

Hong Kong S.A.R
Hong Kong S.A.R

Saxo Capital Markets HK is a company authorised and regulated by the Securities and Futures Commission of Hong Kong. Saxo Capital Markets HK Limited holds a Type 1 Regulated Activity (Dealing in securities); Type 2 Regulated Activity (Dealing in Futures Contract); Type 3 Regulated Activity (Leveraged foreign exchange trading); Type 4 Regulated Activity (Advising on securities) and Type 9 Regulated Activity (Asset Management) licenses (CE No. AVD061). Registered address: 19th Floor, Shanghai Commercial Bank Tower, 12 Queen’s Road Central, Hong Kong

By clicking on certain links on this site, you are aware and agree to leave the website of Saxo Capital Markets, proceed on to the linked site managed by Saxo Group and where you will be subject to the terms of that linked site.

Apple, iPad and iPhone are trademarks of Apple Inc., registered in the US and other countries. AppStore is a service mark of Apple Inc.

Please note that the information on this site and any product and services we offer are not targeted at investors residing in the United States and Japan, and are not intended for distribution to, or use by any person in any country or jurisdiction where such distribution or use would be contrary to local law or regulation. Please click here to view our full disclaimer.